2017 Product & Services Showcase

This feature brings you the current products & services that may be found represented by the member companies of the Concrete Foundations Association to make the work of concrete contractors more efficient and of higher quality.


AUTOCAR  |  www.autocartruck.com |  877-973-3486

At Autocar, building trucks isn’t just what we do – it’s our way of life. Autocar is a leading U.S. based manufacturer of heavy duty vocational trucks for applications like, mobile cranes, terminal tractors and concrete boom pump chassis. We could say a lot of fancy things about our research and technology. We could talk about our experience. We could tell you about our customer service. It’s probably what you’re expecting – but you’ll find all that on our web pages. We’re not here to rest on our laurels. To truly understand Autocar, all you need to know is that we’re 100% niche application-focused because we know you are, too.

Boman Kemp  |  bomankemp.com |  800-733-7886

Introducing a new vinyl window buck. Features tie slots on 3-foot centers. Available in widths of 7 1/2, 8, 9 1/2, 10, 11 1/2 and 12 inches. Low-E Argon dual sliding windows. Well attachment bolts. Welded corners with steel strength built into a finished frame.






Concrete Forms Services  |  ezfootings.com |  801-280-6992

Here at EZ-Footings™ we have designed precise concrete forms out of lightweight, remarkably strong aluminum. With these footing forms you can have a snap-together concrete forming system that will reduce your labor costs up to 50 percent. Additionally, you’ll also see cost savings on concrete, wood, nails and on the fuel to transport your equipment. We’ve thought of everything to enhance simplicity; and your end results will be better than you’ve ever seen.


Concrete Pump Supply  |  concretepumpsupply.com |  877-434-PUMP

Envirosac concrete washout bags offer a bag for every aspect of the concrete placement industry. Our bags are a comprehensive solution from priming out all the way to cleaning out the hopper or drum. These portable lined bags ensure you always have a secure and environmentally friendly solution for leftover concrete.



Cornerstone Innovations  |  www.permaformicf.com |  641-425-0028

Perma Form is a complete, prefabricated concrete wall-forming system for commercial or residential use. These panels arrive fully assembled at the jobsite and are easily connected with built-in interlocking fingers, allowing a durable wall to be quickly formed.



Cranes and Equipment  |  www.cranesequip.com |  800-682-1022

Fully hydraulic Copma form-handling cranes. No electronics, no sensors, no computers. Jib or non-jib cranes available, with reaches of 66 to 84 feet, and maximum capacities from 1,800 to 2,300 pounds. Need larger or smaller? We can provide it. The Copma 450 jib crane provides reach and lift options of 2,250 pounds at 70 feet 8 inches, 2,000 pounds at 78 feet 9 inches, or 1,800 pounds at 84 feet 8 inches. Stop by Cranes & Equipment’s WOC booth #C4834! Ask about our show specials and check out our form-handling package with the Copma 450.6J3.

Dörken Systems, Inc.  |  www.dorken.com |  888-433-5824

DELTA®-MS provides reliable protection for permanently dry basements, keeping moisture away from foundation walls. Air-gap Technology membrane allows incidental moisture that does get past to drain harmlessly to the footer drain. DELTA®-MS is tough and durable. It keeps basements dry and comfortable even when the concrete foundation wall cracks – something asphaltic dampproofing spray can’t do. Dörken delivers innovative, high-performance air and moisture barriers for commercial and residential construction sold under the DELTA® brand name. DЪrken is known for delivering premium products while providing educational programs and full technical support.

Euclid Chemical  |  www.euclidchemical.com |  800-321-7628

For over 100 years, Euclid Chemical has served as a leading supplier to the concrete and masonry industry, offering a full line of engineered concrete admixture and construction products, including chemical admixtures, block and masonry additives, fibers, curing and sealing compounds, epoxy adhesives, floor and wall coatings, structural grouts for columns, equipment and machinery, joint fillers, and repair products. Euclid Chemical’s TUF-STRAND SF macro-synthetic fibers can be used to replace conventional steel reinforcing in poured wall systems and other concrete structures with accompanied engineered calculations and professional design services.

Fox Blocks  |  www.FoxBlocks.com |  877-369-2562

After decades of experience and innovation in the ICF industry, Fox Blocks backs up our products with the support, service and delivery that builders and designers expect. In 2006, after 20 years of producing all brands of ICFs, Airlite introduced the Fox Blocks ICF brand as the latest generation of insulated concrete form available from the manufacturer to the market.





GDB Software, Inc.  |  www.GDBsoftware.com |  800-845-6642

GDB Software has developed CAD and estimating software specifically designed for the concrete foundation and form-rental industries for over 32 years. The software designers and developers at GDB Software have been in the concrete foundation industry and know your software needs. In those 32 years GDB Software has devoted its time to developing software specifically for the Concrete and Form Rental companies’ needs and has been family owned and operated since day one.

GMX Waterproofing  |  www.gmxwaterproofing.com |  704-334-8222

Better drainage, superior durability, competitively priced, environmentally friendly, flexible and bends easily. And it doesn’t itch! What more needs to be said? Fiberglass protection boards just can’t match the standard of excellence set by GMX’s Thermal Drain. Thermal Drain can be ordered in R-3, R-5 and R-10 versions with board thicknesses of 3/4, 1-3/16 and 2-3/8 inches. GMX manufactures waterproofing systems for the residential market and a full line of commercial waterproofing products and systems. Since 1895, GMX has provided solutions for the most challenging waterproofing problems. We welcome the opportunity to put our experience at your service.

Grip-Tite Manufacturing  |  www.griptite.com |  800-474-4878

Grip-Tite, founded in 1921, is a leading manufacturer and distributor of engineered products for foundation repair and support. Products include the Grip-Tite® Foundation Pier System, Helical Pile and Anchor Systems, and the Wall Anchor System. Foundation repair products for bowed, bulging and cracked foundation walls, piers for sinking or settling foundations, and new construction and tie-back/soil nailing products are available through our network of certified, trained dealers. Grip-Tite also offers state-of-the-art water control and water-proofing systems designed to keep basements healthy for your family. Dealer opportunities are available in limited areas. Contact us at info@griptite.com.

Mar-Flex Waterproofing Products  |  www.mar-flex.com |  800-498-1411

GeoMat+ and GeoMat drainage rolls remove water and resist hydrostatic pressure by channeling below-grade water towards footer drainage systems. These water channels are created by molding high-density polyethylene (HDPE) into sheets featuring vertically and horizontally aligned dimples, acting as a barrier to protect liquid membranes against back-fill soil and sediment. The GeoMat product line can complement and protect a spray-on waterproofing or damp-proofing membrane. In instances where a drainage system is installed, GeoMat may be used as a dampproofing product as well as a waterproofing membrane. GeoMat accessories are available to facilitate any job and make installation easy.

Monarch Materials Group  |  www.monmatgrp.com |  412-605-2625

Premier Vinyl Window is designed for pour-in-place systems. It features a sloped sill for water removal, and both sashes are removable and fully weather-stripped. Removable bracing maintains a square window during and after concrete placement. Frames extend the entire width of the wall for thermal efficiency, and the frame has a built-in, tie-slot mounting system. Thermal Hinge Cover keeps wells dry and debris-free while protecting your family, friends, and pets. It supports up to 44 pounds per square foot and is sloped for rain, ice and snow runoff. Fluted design of polycarbonate increases any basement window’s thermal performance.

North American Specialty Products  | www.royalbuildingproducts.com |  713-585-2618

FORM-A-DRAIN® is the 3-in-1 foundation solution that forms footings, provides an integrated drainage system, and is adapted to vent radon where needed. Designed for residential basement applications, Form-A-Drain consists of lineal sections installed as the foundation footing forms. Unlike standard wood forms, Form-A-Drain stays in place permanently after completion of the concrete pour and forms a complete sub-slab perimeter loop around the foundation. Since it stays in place, Form-A-Drain shaves valuable time from the construction schedule; there’s no need for a crew to return the next day to remove, strip, clean and transport forms to the next job site.


Nox-Crete Products Group  |  www.nox-crete.com |  402-504-9241

Now is a great time to clean your aluminum forms…the easy way! Fall and winter is a great time to start thinking about how to remove hard concrete buildup from your aluminum forms. Form Clean is a powerful, chemically active, dual purpose product designed to quickly soften hard concrete buildup while also working as a form release agent. Using Form Clean as a replacement for your everyday form release agent for 2 – 3 weeks is generally sufficient to remove most concrete buildup. Once your forms are clean, you can switch back to your everyday release agent. If your aluminum forms accumulate more buildup, simply switch back to Form Clean to soften and remove the buildup.


Precise Forms Inc.  |  www.preciseforms.com |  816-690-3400


Precise Forms manufactures a wide variety of high-quality aluminum forming systems that can exceed over 2,500 pours with proper care. These systems can be used for, but are not limited to: basements, concrete homes, multi-story buildings, international projects and precast. The forming systems are produced using state-of-the-art robotic welding and create a beautiful concrete finish. These easy-to-use systems require minimal training and help reduce your labor costs. Precise Forms offers a full line of fillers and accessories in both smooth and decorative form styles.


Prinsco  |  www.prinsco.com |  419-906-9101

PROFORM™ HD (Heavy Duty) is an innovative, efficient alternative to traditional wood or PVC forms. This dual-wall corrugated HDPE system forms the footings while at the same time providing superior drainage and radon venting – all in one easy step! PROFORM HD is durable, easy to cut, cold-weather and impact resistant, and comes with installed couplers.


Professional Products Direct  |  www.professionalproductsdirect.com |  530-605-6846

This is perhaps the most versatile concrete sealer, hardener, retardant, freeze protectant, and cure on the market today – it can be used in the most extreme conditions (120 F to below freezing, -20 F) and WITHOUT A CONCRETE BLANKET. One application of Single Seal & Freeze Protect offers the benefits of having a completely sealed concrete but leaves the substrate surface completely receptive to all paints, topical sealers (urethanes, epoxies, acrylics, and glues), weather breathable or non-breathable. This offers added protection preventing the separation milking your topcoat might have caused by moisture and water released by unsealed concrete.


Putzmeister  |  www.putzmeisteramerica.com |  262-884-6387

Putzmeister will introduce its redesigned 30-meter class Truck-Mounted Concrete Boom Pumps line in 2018. Every model in the 30-meter class features improvements based on customer feedback and features a common pedestal. The 31Z-Meter features a new robust pedestal with the same boom with a modified and lengthened first section to account for its offset head. The 36Z-Meter includes a new boom, a more robust pedestal, and even more flexible supports. The 38Z-Meter boom also features a more robust pedestal. The brand-new 39Z-Meter features an innovative boom design, robust pedestal design, and can be configured to meet virtually any pumping application.

Robotics Surveying Solutions  |  scarter@xmission.com |  801-201-9510

We provide equipment, training and support for well over 90 percent of the members of the CFA using robotic layout systems nationwide. Experience with different equipment manufacturers for over 30 years, we sell and specialize only in layout. Each system sold comes with two to three days of on-site training to achieve desired results. We offer system demonstrations, we provide attractive finance programs and we also provide contacts for CAD training and software. Watch for “Robotic Layout Systems Updates” that go out to all CFA members several times a year.

Rockwell Inc.  |  www.rockwellinc.com |  301-606-6165

RockWell manufactures stone textured window wells with the look and feel of real stone adding an aesthetically pleasing view from inside and outside your home. Our Egress window wells are IRC Code compliant, and because they are made of fiberglass, they are extremely durable, and come with a ten-year warranty. They are available in sizes from 24 to 96 inches in height in tan or grey.


Scott System, Inc.  |  www.scottsystem.com |  303-373-2500

The Scott Rim Snap product is designed to hold thin brick vertical in poured-in-place forms. They are reusable at least three times because of the elastomeric rim that holds the brick while forming the mortar joint between the bricks. The Snaps will be “snapped” together and stapled onto the plywood form surface, then thin brick will be pressed into the Snap for a tight fit with no leakage. It is a simple process with outstanding results. A poured-in-place concrete wall with a real brick façade.


SLS Financial  |  www.slsfinancial.com |  816-423-8021

Today, credit scoring systems can make credit decisions almost instantly. While convenient, business is still about people. More than ever, business owners seek a commercial lending partner to learn about their unique needs and to be solution-providers. At SLS, we’ve never lost focus of the business owner behind the application. A big part of our success is based on customer satisfaction, plain and simple, because we believe in leveraging technology and combining it with our expertise for only one purpose: to help people. Should you have questions, we’d welcome a conversation that makes business lending uncomplicated. Call Doug anytime.

Starlite Leasing, Inc.  |  www.starliteleasing.net |  317-873-9728 ext. 222

Starlite Leasing Inc. is a concrete construction leasing company that specializes in helping small and medium-sized businesses, like yours, acquire the equipment they need today. We also buy and sell aluminum concrete forms and rentals by the week or month. We carry a large inventory of new and used aluminum forms, fillers and baskets.



Thermomass  |  www.thermomass.com |  800-232-1748

For over 35 years, Thermomass System CIP has been used by contractors to integrally insulate cast-in-place concrete walls. The system is unique in that it allows a layer of insulation to be placed into a vertically cast concrete wall using traditional forming equipment and construction practices. Unlike traditional ICF forms and post-insulated concrete blocks, Thermomass System CIP insulation and connectors allow both the interior and exterior layers of concrete to be left exposed and finished in a variety of methods, resulting in a durable, energy-efficient building envelope that is free from common moisture concerns and maintenance issues.

Tremco Barrier Solutions  |  www.tremcobarriersolutions.com |  614-322-4446

TUFF-N-DRI® and Watchdog Waterproofing® Quick Cure – these innovative waterproofing formulations from Tremco Barrier Solutions cure at a rate that is up to 90 percent faster than our standard market-leading products, opening up a wider weather window of opportunity for you to confidently meet your production schedules, keep your builders happy and improve your bottom line. Quick Cure can be used on every job you spray, and it’s greatest value to you and your builder is when it’s sprayed with rain, sleet or snow in the forecast and you need to get a job done NOW!

V&H Inc.  |  www.vhtrucks.com |  800-826-2308

V&H Inc. will be showing the two leaders in the market in one great package! Western Star 4700SB, the toughest work truck on the market today, packaged with the leading form-handling crane on the market, Fassi. The 4700SB has the best turning radius, toughest frame and the new Allison 4700 – 7 speed, full auto transmission. The Fassi F415RA.2.24L414 crane is equipped with top seat and the HBC radio remote. It also features a flow-sharing digital hydraulic distributor and RCH evolution remote system. Stop at the Fassi booth #C6103 and ask for Perry Peterson.

Fleetmatics, A Verizon Company  |  www.fleetmatics.com |  866-844-2235

Fleetmatics REVEAL is a fleet management software that has easy-to-understand features that can help you run your fleet like never before. Get visibility into vehicle location, fuel usage, speed, mileage, and valuable insights into driver behavior. With the likes of custom reporting, near real-time alerts, and Geofences, your fleet will be working with efficiency you’ve only dreamt of. Our easy-to-use web-based and mobile fleet tracking applications allow you to simply and affordably improve the way you manage your vehicles.


Western Forms  |  www.westernforms.com |  913-787-5366

Western Forms have the highest resale value of any aluminum forms in the world, featuring the original patented “PinLock™ Attached Hardware” and “Gasket” side rails. PinLock™ is faster and easier than any other attached hardware system, connecting forms 30%+ faster than pins and wedges. The self-cleaning, self-lubricating, spring loaded system makes operation fast and smooth. Exclusive “Gasket” reduces cleaning time, increases form life, helps maintain trade-in value. Western Forms forming systems are made in the USA with American materials, designed to reduce labor, crew hours, and length of projects while still providing high quality structures. Contact Western Forms to learn more.

Westminster Hydraulics  |  www.WestminsterHydraulics.com |  888-818-4402

For over 35 years, privately owned and operated Westminster Hydraulics Inc. has been recognized as one of the leading truck-mounted equipment installation facilities in the Mid-Atlantic region. We’re a small business that takes great pride in producing the highest quality custom products and creating long-lasting relationships based on our total commitment to customer satisfaction. “Quality Isn’t Expensive…It’s Priceless.”

Letter from the Director: OSHA Regulations Bring Increased Relevance

Just from the title, I presume you have already slid to the edge of your seat or crossed your arms in frustration or defiance for what you might read in this letter. After all, in the marketplace there are more real cases now than ever before of contractors and projects impacted by the increased attention OSHA has given to this industry.

Consider this for a moment, however: all reputable contractors realize the most valuable resource and number-one capital investment of their business is the workforce. Labor management is really what your company is about and it likely always has been. The rare exception is the owner/operator, one- or two-man crew that is able to still get by on talent and reliance on equipment and technology. And yet, even you—owner/operator, one- or two-man crew—are your own most valuable resource.

Therefore, what is the biggest concern when it comes to regulations that are designed to do one thing, to keep your most valuable resource safe and in excellent working condition? The reality is that, given best intent (which I know is arguable), OSHA and the research committees that feed their decision-making do not have the time, resources or expertise to truly understand the nature of your work and determine the best ways to regulate safety—or do they? The CFA is currently working hard to answer this question and to provide assistance for all companies in the foundation construction business.

OSHA regulations are all about an employer’s duty to create and maintain safe working conditions, no matter the cost. If you have just invested a large amount of money in the newest piece of equipment (e.g. a concrete pump) or the latest technology (e.g. robotic layout station), are you not willing to spend extra time protecting, cleaning and preparing every precaution to keep that investment in top shape for as long as possible? This is what understanding OSHA regulations is all about. It is not picking your way through a list of options for the quickest way to comply or ignoring regulations on the assumption that you understand your business better.

In the past two months, we have received an increased number of communications for member companies being impacted by OSHA site visits. Citations are being issued for excavation, fall protection, PPE, awareness, on-site management and much more. Silica has yet to be cited but we expect it to be in the conversation soon. Your best course of action to take as soon as possible is to thoroughly review your safety plans, introductions, maintenance and education. There are safety consultants we can introduce you to and, most importantly, CFA members have access to our complimentary preparation resources, review and prevention services.

Accidents will happen to even the most prepared company. However, anticipating and minimizing the nature of a potential accident and preparing for the consequences is our responsibility. We know your business and are intent on helping OSHA know it even more (i.e. alliance for the same common goal), and we want to help you succeed at protecting what we can all agree needs to be protected.

CFA Executive Director, James Baty | jbaty@cfawalls.org

Letter from the President: Business Does Not Change Effectiveness

It has been a very busy year for both our company and the association. We left the summer

meeting with renewed enthusiasm for our business and, equally important, enthusiasm for

subject areas the CFA needed to address.


We live in an ever-changing world, and I have come to realize and understand the need to

run our businesses differently than we have in the past. The handshake days and the readily

available, high-quality, experienced labor pool is all but gone. These two areas are target

issues the CFA is addressing through education and business programming.


“If you are willing to do more than you are paid to do, eventually you will be paid to do more than you do.”



A comprehensive safety and compliance program for the concrete industry is well

underway. We have a very active Safety Committee with professional help available to

them to develop a comprehensive all- inclusive Safety Program. We are also looking into

a national alliance program with OSHA to see if that type of relationship might benefit

our organization and industry. Education sessions generated by these programs will help

in alleviating OSHA citations of noncompliance that are becoming more common in our

industry. I believe we all have the same common goal of increasing safety awareness and



On a different note, you have probably heard many of us talk about “the CFA experience”

and I would like to share one with you. The Bartley Corp. and our company shared

workforces and experience on a job this summer. It has been said that “you don’t know

what you don’t know.” This experience made me realize what I did know, but I hadn’t

realized the potential value it would have to both of our companies. We learned a lot from

each other. This was a perfect example of a true “CFA experience.”


Making a similar effort to find ways for your employees to share their experiences with

those from another company can be an eye-opener and a game-changer. This experience

now tops my list of CFA experiences and is a highlight of my career.


The CFA is here to represent the interests and needs of our industry. Realistically, this

can only happen with input from each and every one of you. We would like to know what

information or issues you would like to see addressed that are pertinent to you and your

company. We welcome your input, questions, concerns and suggested areas of need.

I hope to see everyone in Las Vegas in January at the World of Concrete. Please stop by to

visit us at the CFA Booth.

Dennis Purinton

Purinton Builders Inc.


Tricks of the Trade: Rebar Racks for Crew Trucks

This issue’s Trick of the Trade is shared by CFA member, Doug Herbert of Herbert Construction in Marietta, GA.  Doug continues the challenge to you the reader to think about the ways you’ve overcome annoying details and situations to be more effective and economical in your work.  If you are from an active CFA member company and your trick is selected for publication, your company will have 50 pts. placed in your account for Member Rewards redeemable for your CFA transactions.  If you are from a company that is not a member, we will offer you a $100 discount on your first year’s membership fees…a great way to get to know the CFA.

A couple of years ago, the Concrete Foundations Association sponsored a visit to CFA member ABI Corporation in Missouri. My dad, Barry Herbert, and I were with a group of member contractors that visited their office, shop and yard to see how they do things. Dan and Mike Bromley and their staff at ABI Corp. opened their doors and shared their business with us.

One of the many interesting things I saw there was how they carried their rebar on their trucks. They had tilted their rebar racks downwards towards the rear of the truck. Instead of placing the rebar on top of a tall, level truck rack, this angled rack was a simple stroke of genius.

The sloped rack made it much easier on their employees. They no longer had to climb up onto the bumper or bed of the truck and reach overhead to pull the rebar off. It was a lot more efficient and productive to simply stand on the ground, grab a handful of rebar, and drag it off the truck.

The rebar bundles could still be loaded onto the sloped rack with a forklift in their yard, so loading time was not affected.

A few months after visiting ABI Corp., we were designing a new footing crew truck and added this feature to our design. It has worked really well for us and we will be sure to do that for any other new trucks we fabricate.

The design has saved us many man-hours on various job sites. And we have certainly eliminated one area for possible slips and falls, which reduces potential worker’s compensation claims.

By the way, the biggest benefit of being a member of the Concrete Foundations Association is networking with other successful contractors and vendors to learn better ways of running your business.

Over the years we have gotten numerous ideas like this that have helped our company. Those ideas have improved our working conditions, reduced our headaches, increased our profit, and paid for our membership a hundred times over.

Special thanks to Dan and Mike Bromley and everyone at ABI Corp. for their original idea.

Give A Little, Learn A Lot

There is something to be said for those who take the time and energy to go out of their way to help somebody in need, even more so for those who are able to ask for help when it is needed. Oftentimes the benefits of helping others are not always tangible, and it is that good feeling of knowing you made a difference that makes it all worth it. Sometimes, however, these experiences will teach you more than you knew was possible and change your entire perspective.

Andy Bartley and Andy Renner of Bartley Corp. attended the Concrete Foundations Convention in Nashville, TN this summer hoping to learn a lot, reconnect with old friends, make some new connections and put some new tools in their belt. Little did they know that one conversation was going to turn into an invaluable experience for their crew and change the way they do business.

It all started with a conversation between Bartley, Renner and Dennis Purinton, president of Purinton Builders and current CFA president. The three knew each other from years of attending the Concrete Foundations Convention, and were discussing business as usual. Dennis began to reveal some challenges that his company was facing, one of which is no stranger to the construction industry: a shortage of labor.

“If only I had a bigger crew who could help me keep up.”

– Dennis Purinton, president of Purinton Builders, East Granby, CT

This topic has been addressed for years, and will continue to be an obstacle for companies across the country for years to come—or is that all about to change?

Upon returning home from convention, Renner had the idea of possibly sending a wall crew up to Connecticut to assist Dennis and his team.

“We saw a temporary opening in our schedule, and felt like if we could help, we should.”

– Andy Renner, Project Manager for Bartley Corp, Silver Springs, MD

“We also knew that any time you see someone else’s operation, you see clever things that could help your own operations be more efficient,” said Renner. After a phone conversation about the idea of helping each other, the two companies decided it was a good fit.

“Once we realized this was a real opportunity that we wanted to pursue, we internally discussed how we could properly compensate our crew while also covering our costs,” said Bartley. “Once we had the numbers together, we called Dennis and cautiously presented our expected costs. The conversation was open and we were relieved that the numbers would work.”

Both parties agreed that they would need to execute and sign a contract and provide a certificate of insurance. These formalities were necessary for both companies to keep themselves safe and responsible. With the paperwork signed and a few logistical details discussed, Mario, Bartley’s foreman, and the crew headed north for the seven-hour trip.

That Monday morning, the crew showed up to the construction site ready and eager to get started. “The first thing we discussed was safety,” said Purinton. “We wanted to stress the importance of this to Bartley’s crew so we could all be on the same page with putting together their safety practices along with what our expectations and practices were.”

Although, idealistically, the importance of safety rarely goes unattended on a jobsite, there is something to be said about being held accountable for somebody else’s crew. “We’ve always held safety as a top priority,” said Purinton. “In stressing the importance to this crew, I was re-energized. I was reminded of the weight that my own expectations had on our crew and the impact it had on our operations.”

In addition to safety, Purinton went over the details of the job and set the guys free. Day 1 was very productive. Production included tying rebar mat and forming 400 feet of wall with what seemed like a never-ending number of corners and fillers. Day 2 was placement day. The crew placed 280 yards in less than four hours, along with setting hundreds of anchor bolts, some as close as 16 inches OC, and none more than 32 inches apart. “I couldn’t believe it,” said Purinton. “These guys picked up our system very quickly, and it was going even more smoothly than expected.”

Mario and his crew spent an entire week on Purinton’s jobsite, working together to get the job done, not only holding themselves to Bartley’s standards, but to Purinton’s as well.

“After all of my years in the construction industry, nothing has renewed my energy and passion like this experience has.”

– Dennis Purinton

The obvious benefits of the experience became evident throughout the week: Purinton was able to get ahead of his schedule without having to go through the typical hiring process, and he was provided with a crew that could get the job done. It was after the crew returned home that an unexplored benefit of a CFA membership came to fruition.

“I could not believe the energy and ownership that the guys brought back with them. We are sending Mario out to see another contractor who is using walking planks. Instead of dictating a similar change to Mario, he is asking for it – the power of the CFA!”

– Jim Bartley, president of Bartley Corp, Silver Springs, MD

The guys at Bartley Corp. knew that their experience would open their eyes to new processes, but they did not expect an entire change of attitude from their crew. “Their attention to safety was renewed, and they were beyond excited to introduce our team to new ideas and products that they were introduced to on Purinton’s jobsite,” said Jim Bartley. “I never knew that helping out another company would teach us so much.”

As the president of the CFA, Purinton discovered uncharted territory within the membership. “Our members are talking, but it’s time we take the talking to a new level,” said Purinton. “We’re all being presented with the same obstacles, and we have the means to help each other grow in more ways than you can imagine.”

It was no secret that the experience was more beneficial to both parties than expected. Not only was the Bartley crew able to help out peers, but they were also able to give a sense of ownership to their team, renewing their enthusiasm and introducing new ways of doing things.

“It was such a good opportunity for Mario to go and work with another company and see how things are done a little differently,” said Andy Renner. “When they came back, we sat down with the guys and really listened to what they had to say. We ended up buying a new set of forms that Dennis was using, as well as some other tools that they discovered to make the job safer and more efficient,” said Renner. “The guys came back energized and ready to continue their working habits that they learned, as well as the much-needed safety habits that they picked up, and our plan is to keep that morale going.”

The opportunity to learn from other companies is invaluable. Once you are open to the idea of letting other crews on your jobsite, you are inevitably going to gain knowledge, new perspectives, new tools and a renewed passion for the job. The association is full of contractors who continue to share knowledge and ideas. Bartley Corp. and Purinton Builders are just two companies who are committed to taking their professional relations to new levels and opening doors that otherwise would have never been discovered. Get involved. Make it a priority to seek out new perspectives—you never know just how it will change your entire way of operating.


For more information on Bartley Corp., please visit www.BartleyCorp.com. You can find more on Purinton Builders at www.purintonbuilders.com.

Water: Is It The Basement Contractor’s Worst Enemy?

Author: Mike Hancock, President Basement Contractors 6300 S. Industrial Blvd. Edmond, OK 73034

Sit down at any contractor’s round table and start a discussion about the predominant headache or source of callbacks for basements and you are likely to get common agreement that it is water or moisture. The presence of moisture is a sure sign to the homeowner that a) something dire is wrong with the foundation walls, b) it is the contractor’s error, and c) the walls are either going to fail or the house is going to become a fish tank.

Is water in the basement a function of poor design, poor quality control or poor maintenance?  There are reasons for each of these to be the case, and certainly not every instance can be explained by the same response. However, understanding the most common forms or sources of moisture collecting in basements is essential to developing top-notch customer service, preventive education and mitigation of the problem.



Roof Leaks, Flashing

This is an area most basement contractors and builders do not think about when water shows up in the basement. After all, water is in the basement not the main floor of the house. However, water coming from the roof can travel behind flashing, around pipe vents, skylights, down a wall, to the sill plate and into the basement.

There are many types of roofing materials used in construction. The main purpose of the material is to protect the house from the outside environment—namely snow, wind, hail, and rain. It also adds an aesthetic appeal to the structure. When considering the water barrier for the home, it is the outer layer of roofing material that sheds most of the water. Other components making up the roof also have a role or are required to keep water out of the house. These additional layers or components are actually where most roofing leaks come from. Components such as flashing, “W” valleys and pipe boots are critical in keeping the building dry. The 2015 IRC1 addresses roof flashing in sections R903 and R703, Exterior Covering (figures 2, 3, 4). Section 903 begins:

R903.1 General. Roof decks shall be covered with approved roof coverings secured to the building or structure in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. Roof assemblies shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code and the approved manufacturer’s instructions such that the roof assembly shall serve to protect the building or structure.

R903.2 Flashing. Flashings shall be installed in a manner that prevents moisture from entering the wall and roof through joints in copings, through moisture permeable materials and at intersections with parapet walls and other penetrations through the roof plane.

R903.2.1 Locations. Flashings shall be installed at wall and roof intersections, wherever there is a change in roof slope or direction and around roof openings. A flashing shall be installed to divert the water away from where the eave of a sloped roof intersects a vertical sidewall. Where flashing is of metal, the metal shall be corrosion resistant with a thickness of not less than 0.019 inch (0.5 mm) (No. 26 galvanized sheet).

Section 703 directs the flashing requirements for the exterior wall as follows:

R703.1 General. Exterior walls shall provide the building with a weather-resistant exterior wall envelope. The exterior wall envelope shall include flashing as described in Section R703.4.

Roofing companies and builders often misinterpret or apply the IRC regulations when installing such roof flashing. For example, when roof flashing is installed along the rake of a roof with a brick veneer, the IRC requires the roof-step flashing to be installed with a counter flashing placed over the roof flashing and woven into the brick; followed by a through-wall flashing against the house with water-resistant protection over the base flashing and extending up the wall. The builder and roofing sub-contractor often ignore this regulation for aesthetic reasons and instead place the step flashing directly against the building wall, behind the masonry veneer. When this is done, water traveling on the step flashing has a direct path down the wall to the sill-plate or basement-wall intersection where it often makes its way to the basement floor.

Figure 1:  Incorrect flashing behind brick at roof line forces water behind brick wythe and down to sill plate where it then enters the interior at the foundation wall.

Water reaching the top of a basement wall has an opportunity to reach the basement floor for many reasons. The top of the wall is where most shrinkage cracks appear. Even if the basement wall is waterproofed on the exterior, the crack in the top of the wall provides a location for water to migrate down the wall to a form-tie hole leading to the inside of the wall. From there, the water leaks down to the floor.

Figure 2 – Common vertical shrinkage crack at form panel joint.



Figure 3: IRC Figure R703.8a depicting proper masonry cladding flashing at window sills and foundations.Exterior Wall Penetrations


Windows, doors, condenser lines, electrical conduit, electrical boxes, plumbing hydrants, poorly installed brick, stone, stucco, siding and even the doorbell are possible locations for water to penetrate the house. Manufacturers of products that risk water penetration provide explicit directions for proper installation of their products. Industry organizations such as the Brick Industry Association, the Engineered Wood Association, the Manufactured Stone Veneer Association and the Masonry Veneer Manufacturers Association, to name a few, also provide installation directions to meet the requirements of the IRC. However, many builders and installing sub-contractors are not familiar with the manufacturer’s directions and simplify the installation of the product. The IRC provides prescriptive requirements covering the penetrations of veneers in case a manufacturer’s installation instructions are not provided.

R609.1 General. This section prescribes performance and construction requirements for exterior windows and doors installed in walls. Windows and doors shall be installed and flashed in accordance with the fenestration manufacturer’s written instructions. Window and door openings shall be flashed in accordance with Section R703.4 (see figures 3 and 4). Written installation instructions shall be provided by the fenestration manufacturer for each window or door.

Figure 4: IRC Figure R703.8 depicting proper masonry cladding flashing at window heads and roof.

As a secondary layer of protection from moisture, the IRC requires that a Water-Resistant Barrier (WRB) system be installed on the building between the sheathing and the veneer, regardless of the type of veneer or nature of the penetration. This is available as a liquid application, a roll-out sheet product, or as products pre-applied directly to the sheathing. While each system has manufacturer’s installation requirements, many of these installation instructions are incorrectly followed and thus the systems are incorrectly installed, leading to water infiltration. Incorrectly installed WRB followed by incorrectly installed penetration or veneers can lead to basement water problems.


IRC section 703.4 provides direction on the flashing requirements as:

R703.4 Flashing. Approved corrosion-resistant flashing shall be applied shingle-fashion in a manner to prevent entry of water into the wall cavity or penetration of water to the building structural framing components. Self-adhered membranes used as flashing shall comply with AAMA 711. Fluid-applied membranes used as flashing in exterior walls shall comply with AAMA 714. The flashing shall extend to the surface of the exterior wall finish. Approved corrosion-resistant flashings shall be installed at the following locations:

  • Exterior window and door openings
  • Intersections of chimneys or other masonry construction…
  • Under and at the ends of masonry, wood or metal copings and sills
  • Continuously above all projecting wood trim
  • Where exterior porches, decks or stairs attach…
  • At wall and roof intersections
  • At built-in gutters

Figure 5: Window installation completed incorrectly leaving gaps for water penetration behind the brick façade.

Figure 6: Building wrap installed with joist penetration leaving route for moisture into framed wall past sheathing.


Maintaining Proper Grade

After living in a house for a short period of time, some homeowners decide the builder’s landscaping needs to be improved. A local landscaper is called and a plan is made. They are both proud of their work and protective of the plants to be installed. Raising the beds against the house is often the first decision reached. The results often lead to planting bed dirt-levels that are above the weep holes in the brick, riding up against the siding or stucco, and bringing soil elevations above the top of the foundation wall elevation. Sprinkler systems—often added to keep the ground moist—spray against the house siding, further saturating the soil that has been newly placed above the foundation line and that have a direct line of entry to the basement space under the sill plate.

The IRC requires that exterior grade levels be kept 6 inches below the sill plate and have a slope from the home no less than 6 inches in the first 10 feet away from the foundation. Simply put, maintaining this elevation for the life of the house will help keep water from infiltrating the basement.

Figure 7: Backfilling of rough grade on this foundation wall is to high leaving no room for final grade.

Waterproofing Systems

Figure 8: Completed waterproofing spray-on membrane covering entire wall surface from top of wall to footing interface.

Waterproofing the basement walls prior to backfill is a must if the basement is to be kept dry. No waterproof coating or even damp proofing alone can lead to water problems inside the house. The waterproofing products presently on the market are far superior to those used in the past. They may be sprayed, rolled, troweled, put on in sheets and even mechanically fastened.  Most waterproofing systems use a combination of polymer and asphalt, several are rubber based, some include plastic compositions, and some even use clay sheets. While it is becoming more common for concrete suppliers to market a crystalline additive to the concrete as waterproofing, be cautious of this application. Tie holes and cracks in walls are not sealed with these products. Their purpose is to prevent water from wicking through the concrete, protect steel reinforcement and stop the formation of capillary channels, which are microscopic paths that allow moisture to move through concrete.


Figure 9: Protection board installation on top of waterproofing application.

Basement Floor Systems

The basement floor is often ignored when considering waterproofing a home or developing a water drainage system, but it can be a main source of water infiltration. IRC section R506 requires a vapor barrier under all concrete slabs-on-ground floors.

R506.2.3 Vapor retarder. A 6-mil (0.006 inch; 152 μm) polyethylene or approved vapor retarder with joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed between the concrete floor slab and the base course or the prepared subgrade where no base course exists.

This has been widely ignored and often incorrectly installed when used. The use of polyethylene sheets under the floor is an acceptable practice. The sheet thickness is important to prevent puncture during installation and placement of concrete as heavy foot-traffic is a reality during the preparation, reinforcement and placement of the concrete. While ACI 302.1R-04 provides a decision chart on when a vapor barrier is to be used and where it is to be placed with respect to the slab, contractors have placed the vapor barrier below sand rather than under the concrete directly. As noted in the IRC section above, in a residential basement, this will lead to the moisture being trapped between the plastic and concrete, forcing the concrete to wick the moisture into the basement living space. The environment for this installation drastically affects the air quality in the house. Plastic placed directly under the floor slab keeps the transmission of unwanted gasses and moisture from permeating the floor of the basement. Concrete contractors often blame concrete cracking on the vapor barrier being placed directly under the floor. In fact, using a lower water-to-cement ratio, with water-reducing concrete additives to increase the slump, will counteract this condition and reduce cracking by reducing the overall shrinkage.

Figure 10: Vapor barrier installed and all penetrations taped prior to placement of concrete for floor slab. 

Drainage Systems

Figure 12: Exterior drainage solution with outlet to interior sump pit per Building America Solution Center at U.S. Department of Energy.

Sub-surface drainage is an important factor in water protection and in reducing hydraulic pressure against a basement wall. Hydraulic pressure is measured in height. The higher the wall the higher the potential hydraulic pressure. Soil type mixed with water also has an impact on hydraulic pressure. The denser the soil and water mixture becomes, the higher the hydraulic pressure will be.

A common method of removing hydraulic pressure is to place perforated pipe—covered with course aggregate and protected with a filter fabric—at the base of the footing and wall. It is often a debate whether to place the drainage pipe below the footing or below the floor. Ideally, placing it lower would help remove more hydraulic pressure. However, placing it on the concrete footing below the floor reduces the chance of hydraulic pressure rising above the floor of the basement and reduces the chance of silting in the pipe. It is important the drain pipe has a location to direct water. A sump pit should be installed inside the building with a pump capable of discharging the input rate of water to a location away from the basement. A common mistake is to take the sump pit discharge to the sewer system. There are several reasons to not connect the two and for starters, the IRC prohibits the connection.

Figure 11: Sump pit installed with cross tubes from footing drainage system.


Residual Wall Moisture vs. Relative Humidity

Humidity in new basements as well as existing basements is often confused as a water leak. Water vapor migrates from a cool environment to a warm one. The interior temperature of a building with habitual space in the basement is normally around 72 F. The temperature gradient on the inside of a basement wall varies with outside ground temperatures when no insulation is against the wall. In the summer, the ground will be warmer at the surface than it is during winter, which will then warm the surface of the inside wall.

The soil temperature will begin to stabilize to a consistent temperature around a depth of 3 feet in most places in the United States. The concrete temperature at 3 feet against the ground is typically about 65 F. This varies throughout the country, but in most cases this is the average ground temperature. An uninsulated basement wall will typically match ground temperature gradients through the height of the wall.

Figure 13: Condensation at uninsulated exterior foundation wall due to thermal gradients and high humidity in the enclosed space.

The moisture in the ground and in the concrete migrates to where it is warmer. This is typically the surface of the concrete, which includes surface cracks. The moisture will not be seen, however, because it evaporates at the surface when the space is conditioned or the air temperature and surface temperature of the concrete are above the dew point. When the humidity reaches a point where the dew point is at or below the concrete temperature, condensation occurs at the surface, including surface cracks. Often the dew point is above the concrete temperature when the basement is a conditioned space.

In homes with an exposed concrete floor in the basement, air flow across the room when there is high humidity will show as lighter areas and there will be damp, dark areas where the air moves slower or not at all in a room.  Areas of darkness or surface moisture are typically seen along the lower corners of the basement wall-to-floor interface. Air movement removes the appearance of moisture by evaporating moisture at the surface. Dark concrete in the corners and edges typically indicates high humidity and surface temperatures below the dew point. Waterproofing the basement walls and placing a vapor barrier under the floor are great ideas and are effective at controlling moisture movement but will not reduce air humidity enough to eliminate condensation in most climates. Adding insulation to the exterior of the wall and below the floor with extruded polystyrene will help bring the wall and floor temperatures closer to room temperatures, reducing the appearance of condensation—but the dew point of the air will remain the same. There are several ways to reduce humidity. Conditioning the space through the home’s air conditioning system or a dehumidification system will bring the dew point down by reducing humidity.

The temperature and humidity form energy, like a power plant but at lower levels. Reducing the energy to a value where the temperature is around 72 F and the humidity is around 40 percent will provide a comfortable living space. As the humidity rises and the temperature stays the same, the environment becomes uncomfortable to live in. The longer the humidity stays high the more moisture will accumulate on the basement walls, equipment, and items stored in the basement resulting in that musty smell of mildew.

Therefore, conditioning the space is top priority in resolving the basement climate issue. Perhaps the best method for control is to mix the basement air with the main floor air, which can reduce energy bills and control humidity at the same time. The basement wall and floor temperatures at 65 F provides a great starting temperature for the air conditioning system to work with. By mixing the air of the main floor, which is subject to heat transfer with the exterior temperatures, and the 65 F basement air, a lower energy cost can be achieved. For example: The heat is transferred to the ground from a 72 F room temperature to the 65 F basement walls, the main floor heat is transferred from exterior summer temperatures to a conditioned 72 F interior. Through mixing, a portion of the exterior heat is lost to the basement walls. The movement of air through the cool coil of the air conditioning system removes moisture and does not need as much input energy to reduce the temperature.


Climate Control HVAC vs. Dehumidifier

Instead of spending money on an air conditioner, many contractors place a dehumidification system in the basement to control air quality. When an HVAC contractor chooses to install an oversized air-conditioning unit, one advantage may be that it can still control the humidity level in the basement by running a dehumidifier. However, the disadvantage is that now the homeowner has a unit that runs heating and cooling to control the environment, resulting in higher utility bills in order to keep the space at a constant level of humidity. A dehumidifier accomplishes dehumidification by super cooling the intake air so moisture will condense around the intake coils then heat up the air to discharge back into the room. A fan keeps the air moving across the coils. If this sounds like an air-conditioning system without the heating element, that’s because it is. In most cases a high-quality, variable-speed AC unit will serve the same purpose while circulating more air throughout the house. Dehumidifiers are more effective solutions for removing large amounts of moisture such as when a roof leak or a pipe break brings surface water into the space.


Plumbing Leaks

Plumbing leaks can be a homeowner’s most catastrophic event regardless of the type of foundation. When under pressure, plumbing leaks can wash out the soil under the foundation, causing severe structural damage. Plumbing leaks can flood and damage a basement, the main floor of a house, and even the second and third floors. Hot water lines spray a mist of hot water in the air while creating a whole-house sauna. Drain lines can discharge sewage, filling the basement, the sump pit and the drain tile under the floor with waste—a problem left for those in full body suits to clean up. Those of us in the basement wall business have several recommendations to help builders minimize these problems:

Keep the water supply lines above the footings. Keeping the water lines below frost line while above the footing will help reduce damage to the footers, should a line leak.  Backfill the wall and provide as much compaction or support where the water line enters the wall as possible. This keeps the water line from shearing at the wall, should the backfill settle over time. Put a vertical sweep in the line coming into the wall, again helping with shear, should the excavation settle over time. Use a high-quality penetration seal where the line enters the foundation. IRC section P2603.4 requires the pipe through the wall to be placed through a sleeve that is two nominal pipe sizes larger than the pipe, but it does not say what the sleeve should be made of. A Link seal® with an additional coating of sealant on the outside, for those using ridged pipes, will provide a tight seal between the pipe wall and foundation wall. For flexible pipes through the wall, a sealant filling the cavity between the wall and pipe can serve as a sleeve and be watertight. Polyurethane sealants—not expansion foams or silicones—are best for this application. They have little shrinkage and attach to concrete and Pex piping well while maintaining flexibility and toughness for long periods of time. Drain lines made of a UV protective PVC tend to make very stable drain line systems. Keeping the drains from being affected by foundation movement or by soil settlement is also critical. Should a penetration be needed in the wall, make sure a good penetration seal is used between the wall and the pipe.

Figure 14: Oversized pipe sleeve protects penetrations in foundation walls from settlement of backfill condition.

A common mistake made to sewer systems is connecting the storm sewer to the sanitary sewer system. Doing so is a code violation and can cause the house to fill with methane gas and cause the drain tile and sump pit to fill with sewage. It can cause the discharge of the storm sewer to pressurize the gravity-fed sewage system, causing line failures, and it can back up the floor drains into the house. Overall, this is a bad idea. Another mistake is to tie the roof gutters into the sump pit discharge or the drain tile. When tied into the discharge, the sump pit pump is required to overcome the head pressure now added to it by the height of the roofline. When tied into the drain tile the sump pump is required to pump roof water along with any water that reaches the base of the wall after draining through the ground. This system is not designed to handle the added work in most cases, so it results in a backed-up system in the basement.


Sump Pump Failures

Until now we assumed the sump pump was always a reliable, working system. Sometimes the sump pump fails from not working all winter, power outages, old age, blown breaker, Faulty GFI, etc. When spring thaws the ground and April showers arrive, we need to make sure the pump is operable. There are several types of pumping systems available today. The electric, motor-driven centrifugal pump is the most common and available pump at most hardware stores or plumbing suppliers. A single pump is often installed but, for safety reasons, an additional pump driven by a battery backup is a good idea. A generator should have the additional pump connected to the generator feed as a critical item. A mechanical siphon (inductor) driven off the water supply can also be used as a backup. Turn the water on and the inductor creates a vacuum in the sump pit with a discharge to the outside.

When a sump pump is installed, make sure a check valve is also installed on the discharge side. A pump without a check valve will allow water in the discharge pipe to return into the sump pit and cycle the pump again. This constant cycling will burn out a pump in a short period of time.

A sump pump is often omitted from a walkout out basement. The belief is that the exterior drain tile will discharge to the exterior at the ends of the walls, and therefore no pump is required. However, neglect to the drainage system can inhibit the ability to discharge water at the same rate water is entering the pipe, causing excessive head pressure on the basement walls. This head pressure may cause water to enter the basement from under the floor.  Without interior drain tile or a sump pump, the basement is at risk of water damage.

These are among the top discussion topics at the contractor roundtables I’ve been part of during my time as a foundation contractor and home builder.  Paying attention to the critical issues during construction and communicating with the builder are keys to preventing many of these.  However, understanding the nature of these common water problems is critical to protecting your interests in new foundation construction; facilitating the right solution and reducing call backs that result in warranty work.


About the Author

Mike is founder and president of Basement Contractors located in Edmond, Oklahoma and a professional engineer.  For more than sixteen years he has constructed over 1000 basements in Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. While others had difficulty in constructing efficient, waterproof basements in Oklahoma, Mike perfected the methods of construction that allow all our customers to enjoy the benefits of basement living.  From walk-out to full basements, concrete decks, safe rooms, retaining walls, staircases, or fireplace surrounds, Basement Contractors provides full-service as a concrete construction company.  He has been a featured speaker at regional conferences and national conventions including the American Concrete Institute, Concrete Foundations Association and the National Association of Home Builders and their local or state affiliates.



1                2015 International Residential Code® For One- and Two-Family Dwellings published by the International Code Council, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795 | Phone 1-888-422-7233 | www.iccsafe.org

U.S. Department of Labor’s OSHA Extends Compliance Date for Electronically Submitting Injury, Illness Reports to December 15, 2017

WASHINGTON, DC – To allow affected employers additional time to become familiar with a new electronic reporting system launched on August 1, 2017, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)  has extended the  date by which employers must electronically report injury and illness data through the Injury Tracking Application (ITA) to December 15, 2017.

OSHA’s final rule to Improve Tracking of Workplace Injuries and Illnesses sets December 15, 2017, as the date for compliance (a two-week extension from the December 1, 2017, compliance date in the proposed rule). The rule requires certain employers to electronically submit injury and illness information they are already required to keep under existing OSHA regulations.

Unless an employer is under federal jurisdiction, the following OSHA-approved State Plans have not yet adopted the requirement to submit injury and illness reports electronically: California, Maryland, Minnesota, South Carolina, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.  Establishments in these states are not currently required to submit their summary data through the ITA. Similarly, state and local government establishments in Illinois, Maine, New Jersey, and New York are not currently required to submit their data through the ITA.

OSHA is currently reviewing the other provisions of its final rule to Improve Tracking of Workplace Injuries and Illnesses, and intends to publish a notice of proposed rulemaking to reconsider, revise, or remove portions of that rule in 2018.

Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers are responsible for providing safe and healthful workplaces for their employees. OSHA’s role is to ensure these conditions for America’s working men and women by setting and enforcing standards, and providing training, education and assistance. For more information, visit www.osha.gov.


U.S. Department of Labor news materials are accessible at http://www.dol.gov. The Department’s Reasonable Accommodation Resource Center converts departmental information and documents into alternative formats, which include Braille and large print. For alternative format requests, please contact the Department at (202) 693-7828 (voice) or (800) 877-8339 (federal relay).